Relief from musculoskeletal pain

Experts often refer to pain as to a mental state that arises as a result of extremely powerful and damaging effects on the body. Pain is of particularly great clinical importance as a symptom of malfunction of physiological processes in the body. Pathological processes in the human body may manifest as painful sensations before the development of the external symptoms of the disease.

Medication used to treat pain can due to its composition impair some organs, especially the liver and the kidneys. Long-term use can even result in organ damage. Experts advise that pain relievers should be taken for no more than 10 days a month and not more than three days in a row. Recently, people have been seeking alternative methods to pain therapy such as the use of extracts of certain herbs, hot packs, etc. New approaches also include the method of Oxygen infusion through jet of pressurized oxygen through the skin.

Pain in the muscles, joints, and tendons

In the human body there is a great number of nerve endings that are associated with receptors. These are receptors of tension, pressure, and also pain and can be found in our joints, bones, muscles, internal organs and other parts of the body.

Receptors of pain are called nociceptors. Irritation of these receptors is what creates a painful sensation. When tissue of the human body is damaged, its cells begin to secrete chemical substances, such as histamine, serotonin, potassium, etc. These chemicals then stimulate nociceptors. Subsequently the stimulus travels through nerve fibers into the spinal cord and into higher regions of the central nervous system, where it is registered as a sensation of pain. Based on its type, we recognize acute pain and chronic pain.

Acute pain – occurs immediately upon tissue damage and disappears after the tissue heals. Acute pain warns us that something is not right – it signals that the tissue has been damaged, and therefore we need to pay attention to it and protect the wound site. Acute pain occurs suddenly; often subsiding on its own or after sedation by administered painkillers.

Chronic pain – is pain that lasts longer than three months. Chronic pain patients may suffer from sleeping disorders, exhaustion, irritation, and can sometimes be aggressive. They therefore suffer not only physically but also mentally. Chronic pain is often accompanied by depression or anxiety.

 

Back pain is one of the most common problems that patients complain of. It occurs mostly in the lumbar and cervical spine, and less frequently in the chest area.

 

 

The vertebrae are short bones, with small  holes in them. The openings together form the spinal canal, where the spinal cord is situated. Spinal nerves separate from the spinal cord and exit the canal through small spaces between the vertebrae. As a consequence of pathological processes such as disc herniation that presses on the nerve plexus, the spinal nerves are compressed which causes pain in the area. Similar symptoms may also occur even when there is no protrusion of the intervertebral disc.

The most common cause of back pain (over 85%) is a functional disorder, which is not supported by changes to the hard structures (bone and cartilage). It is caused by long-term inadequate activity or positioning, which the body, in order to avoid damage to the spinal cord, compensates for by muscle spasms- muscle rigidity. These spasms immobilize unduly stressed segment of the vertebral column and at the same time send out the pain signal, which serves to inform the brain that there is a problem and it must be solved. The pain does not need to be limited to the area of compression, it can also radiate to the legs and the calves. Similarly, pain that originates in the cervical spine may radiate to the shoulders, and influence their mobility.

If you are suffering from back pain, or any pain of the musculoskeletal system that is persistent, do not hesitate to visit your general practitioner, who can refer you to a neurologist or an orthopedist.

 

Joint pain treatment depends on the cause of the pain. Treatment options range from bed rest (after overload) to surgery to treat severe degenerative joint damage.

Muscle aches occur after excessive physical exertion, when people complain of “sore muscles”. This is a caused by micro trauma in the muscle tissue that happens due to excessive physical exertion, and which then hurts. Another theory of the sore muscle origins points to accumulation of lactic acid in the muscles from lack of oxygen during exercise as the source of the pain. This condition is however reversible and relief comes after just a few days.

Much greater pain occurs when a muscle is torn. It is then necessary to stay on bed rest and let the muscle regenerate.

Pain caused by inflammatory diseases of the musculoskeletal system

The inflammation of tendons and muscles causes uncomfortable pain that bothers many people. The causes behind most inflammation and pain of tendons and muscles are:

  • sudden increased activity of the muscles,
  • insufficient warm-up and muscle overuse during exercise (especially concerning lower extremities),
  • long-term overuse of specific muscle groups or tendon insertions (one-sided overuse)

An example of the inflammation of muscles and tendons caused by overuse is tennis elbow. A very effective treatment is blocking of the inflammatory process and fixation of the arm (movement restraint), later rehabilitation and gradual mobilization.

We often try to relief pain of musculoskeletal origin by using drugs that can be found at home, and we only seek out help when the situation is very serious. We should not forget that the best prevention against pain is regular exercise. When suffering from chronic pain that is difficult to deal with, it is better to visit a doctor as soon as possible as it is a more efficient solution than regular use of over-the-counter pain relievers and can help avoid surgery.

Prevention of unnecessary problems and complications is the most efficient way of taking care of one’s health. Pain serves to inform us that something is wrong with our bodies.

Regeneration of the skin in dermatological conditions

Human skin is the largest organ in our body with the total area of 1.5-2 square meters, and weighing approximately 16 kg per one adult. The skin receives and mediates the effects of external environment while participating in basic biological processes of the body. Its most important functions include protective and regulatory functions.

Human skin consists of three layers: epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous tissue. The epidermis is composed of several layers of cells that are in constant state of division and development; with the surface layer being eventually shed. The dermis consists of two areas: the papillary region and the reticular region. The dermis is formed by collagen and elastic fibers, fibrils, proteoglycans, salt and water. Due to their ability to bind water, proteoglycans are responsible for resistance of the skin to pressure. Collagen fibers are responsible for elasticity of the skin and for its resistance to pulling or breaking. Subcutaneous tissue connects the skin to the surrounding organs.

Skin diseases can affect any part of the body and their severity varies from irritation to life-threatening conditions. The skin is not always capable of renewing itself. It requires some help in this process.

Psoriasis, eczema, dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, rosacea

Some results of expert studies pointed out an absence of oxygen (hypoxia) in the genesis and development of psoriasis in humans. This means that a sufficient supply of oxygen might be able to suppress the inflammatory processes present in psoriasis. It has been discovered that the use of oxygen infusion on psoriatic crusts has a keratolytic and anti-inflammatory effect.

Before:                                                                                                                 After:

psoriasiA                                                      PsoriasiB

Acne

Acne is definitely the most common condition among young people. It affects more than 80% of the adolescent population. Acne most commonly affects the skin of the face and of the body in areas where sebaceous glands can be found in higher concentration (often on the back). These glands produce sebum, an oily or waxy matter. In patients with acne, the sebaceous glands are more active and produce more sebum, which results in the formation of zits (comedones). When the zit ruptures, inflammation develops and the skin around the lesion is irritated.

Acne is to be understood as an inflammation rather than an infection! When inflammation continues and expands, bacteria present on the surrounding skin contribute to the formation of pus-filled pimples on the skin. With strong antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effect, which lead to reduction in production of histamine in the inflammatory process, the oxygen infusion reduces the active phase of acne. It causes faster healing and also regulates sebum production.

Before:                                                                                                   After: 

Acne1                                                            Acne2